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Subsequent names, e.g., 'Ceilao', "Ceilan", `Ceylam', Ceylan', Zeilon, and Ceylon are adapted from "Serendib". The Frenchman Sier Sanson's 1652 map uses 'Ceylan'.The Dutch map of 1681 uses the name Ceylon and Conde Uda to refer to the kingdom of Kandy (Conde).This is further clarified by noting that eighteen countries are mentioned in early Tamil literature, clearly distinguishing "cinkalam" from "Tamlaak(h)am", viz., cimkaḷam, conaakam, cā vakam, cīṉam, tuḷuvam, kutakam, konkanam, kanna-tam, kollam, telin(g)kam, kalin(g)kam, vaṅkam, kaṅ- kam, makatam, kaṭāram, kavuṭam, koklam, tamilakam; சிங்களம், சோனகம், சாவகம், சீனம், துளுவம், குடகம், கொங் ;கணம், கன்னடம், கொல்லம், தெலிங்கம், கலிங்கம், ;வ ங்கம், கங்கம், மகதம், கடாரம், கவுடம், கோசலம், தமிழகம்.The early Pali writings of Sri Lanka also mention similar names for kingdoms located in the subcontinent.Although the rulers did not introduce opium to control the subjects as they did in Burma and China, the British opened up taverns and introduced a culture of alcoholism in to a largely teetotal Buddhist and Hindu society.The British established five provinces in 1833, instead of the three kingdoms (Pihiti, Ruhuna and Maya) and a feudal hierarch based on the Rata.In this the Portuguese were supported by low-caste tamils who had been converted to Christianity already during the co-habitation of Sankili-I with the Portuguese.However, Mudliyar Attapattu who had been dispatched by the King of Kandy (Senerat) with an army of 10,000 defeated the the Portuguese soon after, as documented then by Joao Ribeiro and more recently by Tikiri Abeysinghe, (Jaffna under the Portuguese ISBN 955-1131-70-1).

The Kandyans were dispossessed of their land which was rapidly converted to coffee plantations, and subsequently to tea.

The British signed a treaty with the Kandyan Adigars (minsters) handing over Sinhalé to the British in return for their guaranteeing various rights including the primacy of Buddhism.

It soon became evident that the "Kandian convention" was a sham which was not being respected by the British.

The name "Sinhalé" was used when Kandasamy was crowned "Sri Wikrama Rajasinghe".

The 1815 treaty between the English and the `Adigars' of the Kandyian kingdom use the name Sinhalé therein.

In modern parlance, the English were brought in by the Kandyans to establish "human Rights"! King Panduwas Dev (Pandukabhaya, 4 century BCE) had divided the country into three provinces, viz., Phiti rata or Raja rata, north of the Mahaweli Ganga and Daduru Oya, Rohana or Ruhuna being south of the Mahaweli and extending up to Kalu ganga, while Maya rata extended from the Kalu Ganga to Deduru oya.

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