Although the hominid fossil record is far from complete, and the evidence is often fragmentary, there is enough to give a good outline of the evolutionary history of humans.
The species here are listed roughly in order of appearance in the fossil record (note that this ordering is not meant to represent an evolutionary sequence), except that the robust australopithecines are kept together. Australopithecus, Homo) which is always capitalized, and a specific name (e.g. Within the text, genus names are often omitted for brevity.Sahelanthropus tchadensis Orrorin tugenensis Ardipithecus ramidus Australopithecus anamensis Australopithecus afarensis Kenyanthropus platyops Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus garhi Australopithecus sediba Australopithecus aethiopicus Australopithecus robustus Australopithecus boisei Homo habilis Homo georgicus Homo erectus Homo ergaster Homo antecessor Homo heidelbergensis Homo neanderthalensis Homo floresiensis Homo sapiens sapiens Some scientists use a broader definition of Hominidae which includes the great apes, and instead call the group I am discussing "hominins".For a good discussion of the hominid/hominin terminology issue, read this article by Lee Berger.Its finders have claimed that Orrorin was a human ancestor adapted to both bipedality and tree climbing, and that the australopithecines are an extinct offshoot.Given the fragmentary nature of the remains, other scientists have been skeptical of these claims so far (Aiello and Collard 2001). 2004) has found further evidence of bipedality in the fossil femur.Each species has a type specimen which was used to define it.